I can give you a few, but not all
Class (Programming): A class can describe the ‘template’ to create something. For example a Human. It has variables like ‘Age’, ‘Height’, ‘EyeColor’, etc. and functions that represent stuff that the “Human” can do, for example Walk, Run, Jump etc.
Parent and Child: For example having the Parent Class “Animal” that only defines stuff that all animals have in common (height, how many legs etc).
A child then could be “FlyingAnimal”. It has all the stuff from the “Animals” class, but can also contain new stuff like “WingSize” etc.
Object (Programming): An object is a created class with filled in values. Like “Name: Steve, Age: 23, EyeColor: Green”. There can be an endless amount of Objects of the class “Human”.
Blueprint: Visual version of written code. Represents a class that you normally define in code.
Object (UE4): Most basic(?) class in UE4. Can be created but not actually spawned in 3D. May be used for manager and other data managing things.
Actor: Child of the Object Class. First 3D spawnable class. Represents something that you can really spawn in the world, like a character, a block, a door, etc.
Controller: Base Class for all Controllers. They are meant to “control” things, like the name already says.
AIController: A ChildClass of the Controller. Is used to control an AI, like the strings of a puppet.
(AI: The term for a computer controlled unit. Can be an enemy, a friend or a neutral unit. Depends on how you code them.)
PlayerController: A ChildClass of the Controller. Makes up the connection between the Player in the real world and the PlayerCharacter. Can be seen as the strings of a puppet that the player moves with mouse, keyboard, controller, etc.
Pawn: A child of the Actor Class. Represents a controllable unit that is not necessarily a human moving unit. Could by a flying unit or a car or something (Although there are extra Child Classes for that).
Character: A child of the Pawn Class. A more defined version of the pawn which is normally something like a human or at least already designed to be a moving pawn.
Asset: Everything you create for the game. A 3D model, a 2D Texture, a Sound, Music, even a Blueprint itself.
And i guess there is much more, but that should give you an idea.