We had this discussion internally when a couple of the moderators noticed this problem, I was one who was unaffected by the issue. Both those who cannot see it and those who can were using the exact same version of Chrome. Those who could not see the image cleared their web history and cookies, then restarted their browser. After doing so the issue was resolved, it is possible some changes were made to the cookies some time ago, and judging by the code snippet you provided above the issue is related to cookies in some way.
Please try clearing your cache and all cookies then restart your browser, we have confirmed internally that this will solve the issue.
Thanks for providing the code snippet for Epic to review!