AFAIK ES 3.1 GPUs aren’t required to support ASTC. Only way to know is checking for the GL_KHR_texture_compression_astc_ldr capability. I think you can set that on your manifest to force Google Play to only list your app for compatible devices, like this:
<supports-gl-texture android:name="GL_KHR_texture_compression_astc_ldr />
But if you want your app to be playable on devices that don’t support that, you’ll have to either pack ETC2 textures as well (increasing app size), look into setting up Google Play’s multiple APK system or setting up your own content download system (that’s what Lineage II does: their APK is very small, detects the device’s supported textures and then downloads the matching assets from their servers).