I think what you are looking for are Float Curves & Color Curves, they can be created by right clicking in the Content Browser, highlighting “Miscellaneous” and selecting “Curve”. You will be able to choose whether you want a Float, Vector, or LinearColor curve.
To use the curves in a blueprint (I use them in both the construction script and the event graph) you just need to create a variable and set it’s type to either CurveFloat, CurveVector, or CurveLinearColor. with that done you can use the curve with a float variable driving the time 0-1 range (or any other range, it is not limited to 0-1) like this:
If you double click on the actual curve asset in the content browser you can adjust the curve similar to how the other curve editors work in the editor:
All the examples above are setting a value in a DynamicMaterialInstance, but you can expose a Vector/Float parameter from within the particle editor as well if you want to adjust some other values.
Hope that helps, let me know if you need some more info!