I am not sure how sound is currently handled in ue4 and what you have access to, in most sound APIs you can fetch a lot of additional data from a sound being played. This is used for instance in media players to do interesting graphical feedback. Not far from what you are planing.
I guess the first thing needed is to find a common ground between the particle system and the sound system. That is probably trough a blueprint? One that reads information from a specified sound and feeds that sound into the data for the particle system?
Step one, see if we can fetch the sound data at a tick event.
Wierd transformations and transforms and magic touch on the data.
Step two, hook up the data to the particle system after the magic touch.